MONUSCO in the DRC: key points to know

MONUSCO in the DRC: key points to know

Decades after its arrival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo has proven to be ineffective, according to Congolese authorities who have deemed its results insufficient. Between insecurity which continues to grow and the pressure of a population which groans under the violence of armed groups, President Félix Tshisekedi has moved up a gear to openly demand the departure of MONUSCO. The UN mission will therefore leave the country, leaving key dates behind it.

Below are the dates to remember for MONUSCO in the DRC:

1999: Creation of the United Nations Organization Mission in the DRC (Monuc) to supervise the Lusaka ceasefire, signed in July 1999 between the DRC and five states in the region, and facilitate the disengagement of forces. Its mandate was later expanded to include monitoring the implementation of the ceasefire agreement and other related tasks. Average annual budget of around a billion dollars.

– 2000: Adoption of several UN Security Council resolutions to expand MONUC’s mandate and engage it in tasks such as the protection of civilians, security sector reform and the organization of elections.

– 2002: Adoption of three Security Council resolutions on the conflict in the DRC, notably Resolution 1417 which expanded MONUC’s mandate to include the protection of UN personnel and installations.

– 2004: Adoption of five Security Council resolutions on the conflict in the DRC, notably resolution 1565, which confirmed the mandate of MONUC.

– 2010: Transformation of MONUC into MONUSCO (UN Mission for Stabilization in the DRC)

– 2013: Adoption of resolution 2098, which created the intervention brigade within MONUSCO

– 2005, 2006, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020: Several times extension of the mandate of the UN force

– The DRC continues to face conflicts involving numerous armed organizations, particularly since 2012, with the return of the M23 militia accused of being supported by neighboring Rwanda.

– 2022: A massacre of 131 civilians took place in November in Rutshuru in North Kivu, attributed to the M23, sparking further criticism of MONUSCO’s effectiveness in maintaining peace.

– 2023: The Congolese president, Félix Tshisekedi, calls for the departure of 15,000 peacekeepers in September, and this is confirmed by a declaration from the Security Council a month later.

– 2023: A MONUSCO withdrawal plan signed on November 22, which announces the end of the United Nations mission in the DRC.